The field

There are a variety of different surfaces for tennis courts. The four most common types of surfaces are asphalt, clay, herb and synthetic. Each surface has its own personality. They have various colors, smells and textures, and each surface treats the ball differently.

Asphalt fields: This is the most common type of surface area in Sardinia. The ball behaves very constantly, which allows players the opportunity to anticipate the game of opponents and play their tennis without too much variation. The bounce is not too high or too low, and the ball travels at an unseeded speed. It is ideal for beginners who want to avoid the unpredictability of rebounding as on grass or clay courts. Each type of game fits well in the asphalt field.

Herb courts: The oldest and fastest type of court is the one in the grass, Wimbledon is definitely known by everyone. Playing on these courts requires a lot of effort and speed of execution. The ball travels very quickly on the grass, leaving very little time for balloons or large backswing. It restricts players with the use of short, compact shots, and doesn’t allow much time to prepare for the shot. If you like to dampen and attach to the net, the herb is the ideal surface, as in cut or damped shots the ball remains low and it becomes difficult for the opponent to respond effectively. Once you’re on the net, you can finish the point quickly. Don’t expect the same bounce on the herb twice. Anyone with knee problems or reluctance to bend their legs should avoid herb courts, as low ball bounce will require a lower center of gravity to make contact with the ball.

Clay courts: Remember to bring you a towel, water and plenty of patience. Clay courts are very slow surfaces, and matches tend to last a lot as the ball travels slowly and players can “easily” reach the opponent’s shot and prepare their own fight. Ground courts are ideal for players with large swings and those who hit with a lot of topspin. The rebounds are high, so you need to push the ball deep. Different types of effects, such as cutting or backspin, are very effective on clay. Clay courts are most common in regions with warm climates and are popular in Italy, Spain, South America, and some southern regions of the United States. The ball is very unpredictable on this surface. The softness of the clay is less heavy on the joints and is advisable for players with knee problems. It is also ideal for beginners to practice, and they want to hit a lot of balls to practice.

Synthetic surface fields: These rubber, nylon and polyester fields are only available in the last 20 or 30 years. The speed of the ball on synthetic surface varies enormously, but in general it is slower than on asphalt fields. The material used under the synthetic surface determines the type of play.

Dimensions: width 10.97 m, length 11.88 m (half field), height of the net in the center 0.91 m.

The Ball

The ball must have a uniform outer surface and must be white or yellow in color. If there are joints, these must be seamless. They are made with a mixture of rubber, carbon black, sulfur and other additives of which each company jealously keeps the secret. The ingredients are mixed together and hot molded into hollow hemisphere-shaped molds. The two half-spheres, once detached from the mold, are coated with a layer of glue: glued to two to two – with a process, vulcanization, which makes them elastic – will form the ball. The raw product is then sprinkled with glue and coated with two felt tabs, made of 70% wool and the rest of synthetic fibres. Without this coating it would be impossible to play: the ball in fact reaches, at the exit from the racket after service, even 230 km/h. Thanks to the coating, however, after the rebound it slows down to 70-80 km/h, allowing opponents to respond. In addition, felt accentuates the effects that are given to the ball by players. In professional circuit matches new balls are always used that are changed after 7 games from the beginning of the match and then every 9 games played

Size: Currently between 6.35 cm and 6.67 cm in diameter, to reduce the speed of service you are thinking of enlarging them slightly. Weight 56.7 – 58.47 gr. 254 cm high bounce between 134.6 and 147.3 cm.

The Racket

In choosing the right frame you have to analyze a whole series of personal characteristics, as well as keep in mind the two main users: agonist frames and frames for amateurs. So there’s no tool that’s good for everyone. It is very important to rely on the advice of an expert in the field, and to find a specialized store that gives you the opportunity to try a frame before buying it.

Frames for agonists: generally the weight does not fall below 300-330 gr, balance shifted towards the handle – for maximum control – and with a thin profile (18-22 mm) for high rigidity. Some also adopt swooped tape to further weigh down the frame. Unlike a club player or beginner, the professional certainly does not need a frame that helps him in the thrust of the ball, since he performs a wide and fast arm-racket movement. For this reason agonists mostly seek control as the main feature for their frames. Frames for amateurs: unlike the former, these frames offer more power, lower weight, a somewhat wider profile. A club player later in his age will experience these characteristics even more than a 30-year-old tennis player. In principle, the weight is less than 300 gr, the average profile is 24 mm, balancing towards the head of the racket (34-35 cm or more). Some frames for amateurs are built to be exploited even up to an agonist level.

the lighter a racket is, the less aptitude for pushing the ball. However, the lighter frames have a shifted balance towards the head of the racket to achieve a decent compromise between speed and handling. Also remember that a lightweight racket is handy and suitable for flying play and not for back-to-back players. Be careful to play with rackets too light (less than 260 gr): the arm-wrist-shoulder will suffer.
thin-profile frames have greater stiffness. The greater the thickness of the racket, the greater the power and stability, but at the expense of sensitivity and the possibility of using top spin and back spin rotations. Be careful to play with over profiling rackets: the arm-wrist-shoulder will suffer.
as already mentioned, a racket can have a balance towards the head – more speed of the ball – towards the heart – more manageable, suitable for shots on the fly -, towards the handle – more ball control. However, the balance of the racket and the overall weight can be varied by adopting swoooted tape.
Classic 68.5 cm
Longbody 71 cm
Maximum 73.66 cm
ExtraLight up to 331 Gr
SuperLight 331 – 345 Gr
Light Medium 361 – 375 Gr
Light Medium over 375 Gr
Racket oval (1 Inch2 = 6.45 Cm2)
Format Thumbs2 Cm2 Increase
Classic 70 452 0
Midsize 71-91 452-587 +10%/+30%
Midplus, 2000 92-97 588-625 +30%/+40%
Midover, 2000 98-108 625-697 +40%/+55%
Oversize 109-118 697-761 +55%/+70%
Supersize over 118 over 761 over 70%
The racket handle (1 Inch = 25.4 mm)
No. Inch Mm
0 4 102
1 4 1/8 105
2 4 1/4 108
3 4 3/8 111
4 4 1/2 114.5
5 4 5/8 117.5
6 4 3/4 120.5

The Ropes

The choice of strings, given the large assortment available to the market, is not really immediate and the simplest. In addition to considering factors in common with those of the choice of the frame, there are also other aspects, as well as those related to making the performance of the frame used stand out and also influentially your portfolio. First let’s analyze the types of rope on the market.
The types of rope are: natural, synthetic, hybrid gut (a mixture of the first two). These are the main categories. Synthetic strings are present in various construction techniques: monofilament, winding, multifilament. Synthetic cords cost less than gut ropes, as the latter require a longer and more expensive machining procedure. You have to look for the type of rope that suits your playing style. The power, control, rotations, are conditioned by the use of one rope or another, as well as by the type of frame on which it will be mounted. However, each type of string has more than one characteristic, but in general manufacturers tend to make one of these properties prevail more and more: either power, or control, or resistance.

A few words about the tension of the strings and the choice of the oval

For the same frame, in general:

  • low voltage (under 23-24 kg) means more power but less control
  • high voltage (over 25-26 kg) means more control but less power.

Remember to differentiate the tension of the vertical strings by 1 kg more than the horizontal ones. This is to avoid deformation of the frame and to obtain the same tension. In fact, vertical strings are longer than horizontal. In some cases the voltage is increased by 2 kg compared to the horizontal.

There is no equal ideal voltage for everyone, it depends almost everything on the frame.

With a Classic format (see table) it will be better to orient yourself towards a medium low voltage as the strings deform little during the impact with the ball and even with low voltage you do not get too lost in control. In general never fall below 23 kg, also taking into account the loss of tension with time and use.

With an Oversize format the speech reverses, better high voltages that guarantee greater control, the power gives it the frame that allows the strings a greater deformation. In general never fall below 26 kg. This format has the characteristic of keeping the tension less, so the strings will have to be changed more often if you want to always have good control.

The Midplus format is the most balanced, a great compromise, it adapts to all types of games.

The power of a racket is quantified as the thrust it provides to the ball.

Control, on the other hand, is the precision with which you can direct the shot; it is quantified with the time when the ball remains on the strings, the more time we have left the less control as the forces acting during the impact tend to change the direction of the shot.

The game

The game begins with the service (two shots available) of a player who has to pull, through the bar, the ball from his middle of the field to the opposing right service field; if the ball hits the net and ends up in the opposing field anyway, the player can repeat the joke once again. The opponent can hit the ball on the fly or immediately after the first bounce, throwing it within the limits marked by the back line and side corridors. It is not possible to cross the net with your racket and invade the opposing field with your feet; in these cases “foul” is performed and the point is assigned to the opponent.

The score is awarded according to the proportion 15-30-40-game (game); in the event of a tie, the “game” wins the player who first gets two consecutive “advantages”. Players alternate with service at each game; when the number of games ended is odd, you change the field. The “set” (match) ends with two “games” ahead (6 games and if the players are on the score of 6-6 a decisive game is played, in English tie-break, to achieve victory at 7-6, with the exception of the fifth game in some important tournaments); the match ends when one of the two players wins 2 sets out of 3 or 3 out of 5.

points are counted using traditional numbering (1,2,3, etc.) and no longer with the typical game of tennis (15, 30, 40, etc.). The tie-break (and then the set) is won by the player who first scores at least 7 points with two points ahead of the opponent. The player is to the answer in the twelfth game has the right to serve the first point of the Tie-break; players then alternate with the service every two points played, so as to serve, each, a point from the left side and one from the right side of the field. Every six points played, the field is changed, within which players cannot sit (as in the field changes following the first game of each set).